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FIGURES
Figure 1.  North Side Board of Trade. The Great North Side, or the Borough of the Bronx New York: North Side Board of Trade, 1898. 10.

Figure 2.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Brewery Ruins, photograph, Bronx. 2017.

Figure 3.  Bornstein, Jonathan. 2017, Hupfel Brewery Ruins Facing South, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 4.  1911.  Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 23 [Map bounded by E. 161st St., Kelly St., E. 152nd St., St. Ann’s Ave.]”

Figure 5.  (1887) [Hunts Pt, Melrose, Morrisania, Mott Haven] Robinson, E., Atlas of the city of New York, v. 5. 1892.

Figure 6.  Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Map of the Harlem River and Spuyten Duyvil Creek from Ward’s Island to the Hudson River” New York Public Library Digital Collections.    

Figure 7.  Bracklow, Robert L, c. 1870-1910, Spuyten Duyvil [Steam Locomotive Passing a Large House at a Railroad Junction].  Accessed December 28, 2017.     
https://collections.mcny.org/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult_VPage&VBID=24UP1GTRWKP4&SMLS=1&RW  =1202&RH=743

Figure 8.  Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Outline and Index Map of the 23rd Ward, City of New York.” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.                 http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e2-4ad5-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Figure 9.  https://www.brewersassociation.org/?s=morrisania Accessed December 28, 2017,

Figure 10.  Édouard Manet,1873, Le Bon Bock, oil on canvas, Philadelphia Museum of Art. Accessed December 28, 2017.
https://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/59213.html

Figure 11.  Nothangel, J. A. B., 1774, Beer Dan, Schutz-Jude. Accessed December 28, 2017.                https://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?134921-Frankfurt-Judengasse-Jews&styleid=75

Figure 13.  https://viewing.nyc/check-out-this-amazing-1867-map-of-the-bronx-before-it-became-part-of-new-york-city Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 14.  (1874), From the Old and New World: German Emigrants for New York Embarking on a Hamburg Steamer, wood engraving. Accessed December 28, 2017.
https://www.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/images/ship-med.jpg

Figure 15.  C. 1910, Brauereiausschank in Muenchen, Augustiner-Brewery, Munich, Germany, photograph. Accessed December 28, 2017.  http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=1634

Figure 16.  https://apushearly1800s.weebly.com/immigration-to-america.html  Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 17. Rothstein Arthur, 1936, photograph, Bronx.

Figure 18.  Chamber of Commerce Collection.  The Bronx, New York. 1894-1968.  Roll 1. Bronx Board of Trade Dir. Minutes. Lehman College, Bronx. 1915-1920.

Figure 19.  R. Rolston, Lorraine E. “A New Bronx Tale: Gateway Center and Modern Urban Redevelopment.  Focus on Geography, Summer 2012.               http://www.lehman.edu/vpadvance/artgallery/arch/buildings/614_courtlandt.html Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 20.  Conde, Ed Garcia, 2009, Ebling Brewery Caves, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 21.  Fremson, Ruth, 2009, photography, for The New York Times.
http://www.ediblegeography.com/bronx-beer-caves/  Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 22.  http://en-gb.topographic-map.com/places/Bronx-County-8152899/ Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 23. Zimmer, Michelle Hope. Highbridge Aqueduct, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 24.  The Western Brewer 29, 10 (October 1904):456 in Appel, Susan K. “Artificial Refrigeration and the Architecture of 19th-century American Breweries.” IA. The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 16, no. 1 (1990): 21-38.

Figure 25.  One Hundred Years of Brewing: A Complete History of the Progress Made in the Art, Science and Industry of Brewing in the World, Particularly during the Last Century. Chicago: H.S. Rich &, 1901.

Figure 26.  Chamber of Commerce Collection.  The Bronx, New York. 1894-1968. Bronx Board of Trade Dir. Minutes. Lehman College, Bronx. 1915-1920.

Figure 27.  “History of German Immigration in the United States and Successful German-Americans and their Descendants,” 1908.

Figure 28.  Chamber of Commerce Collection. The Bronx, New York. 1894-1968. Bronx Board of Trade Dir. Minutes. Lehman College, Bronx.

Figure 29.  https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/5fd4ec98-a874-f139-e040-e00a18060b1f Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 30.  Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Bronx, V. 10, Double Page Plate No. 224 [Map bounded by Washington Ave., E. 169th St., Boston Rd., Spring Place., E. 166th St.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9817b01c-6d8d-9cb5-e040-e00a180621b9

Figure 31. Ibid

Figure 32.  Chamber of Commerce Collection. The Bronx, New York. 1894-1968.  Roll 1. Bronx Board of Trade Dir. Minutes. Lehman College, Bronx. 1915-1920.

Figure 34.  https://www.pinterest.com/pin/458241330807173310/ Accessed January 9, 2018.

Figure 34.  http://www.beerbooks.com/images/products/med/1483.jpg  Accessed January 9, 2018.

Figure 35.  http://elections.harpweek.com/NYT/0201/020978M.jpg  Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 36.  http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/prohibition-back-gallery-1.1536502?pmSlide=1.1536493  Accessed January 8, 2018.

Figure 37.  Chamber of Commerce Collection. The Bronx, New York. 1894-1968.  Roll 1. Bronx Board of Trade Dir. Minutes. Lehman College, Bronx.

Figure 38.  http://www.beerhistory.com/library/holdings/ehret.shtml  Accessed January 9, 2018.

Figure 39.  “Ehret Expects to Get His Money Back” New York Times (1857-1922), Aug 13, 1918.

Figure 40.  http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/25/realestate/upper-east-side-streetscapes-empires-of-rival-brewers.html  Accessed January 9, 2017.

Figure 41.  Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library. “Annual Dinner [held by] Schnorer Club of Morrisania [at] “Schnorer Club, Bronx, NY”. New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed September 7, 2017.   http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-6ecd-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Figure 41B  Courtesy of: McNamara, John in Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 96.

Figure 42.  https://www.brewersassociation.org/statistics/number-of-breweries/ Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 43.  Ibid.

Figure 44.  Ibid.

Figure 45.  Ibid.

Figure 46.  https://deadspin.com/cool-old-map-how-did-your-state-get-its-liquor-during-1486563191 Accessed  August 21, 2017.

Figure 47.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins Entrance, Photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 48.  Bronx Brewery Fire, Photography, NYPL Digital Archives.

Figure 49.  “Fire Routs 200 Patients: Blaze Near Bronx Dispensary Damages Brewery Slightly,” New York Times, 1938.

Figure 50. “An Unlicensed Engineers Mistake,” New York Times, 1883, 8.

Figure 51.  “David Mayer Brewery on Fire,” New York Times, May 13, 1884.

Figure 52. Augustus, Sylivia Rose, 1990, “Something is Brewing in the Bronx: A History and Rehabilitation Plan for the Ebling Brewery”, photography, 39.

Figure 54.  Ibid, 45.

Figure 55. https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/redlining/#loc=13/40.8278/73.9049&opacity=0.8&sort=98,104,190&city=bronx-ny Accessed January 9, 2018.

Figure 56. https://www.google.com/search?q=building+the+cross+bronx+expressway&newwindow=1&hl=en&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi32p7o4MbYAhWLRN8KHRw8CfEQ_AUIDSgE&biw=1320&bih=813  Accessed December 29, 2017.

Figure 57.  Tenierello Papers. Special Collections. Leonard Lief Library of Lehman College. The City University of New York, 1952-1955..

Figure 58.  Ibid.

Figure 59.  Ibid.

Figure 61.  Ibid.

Figure 62.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Ridge North of Hupfel’s Brewery, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 63. https://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/5fd4ec98-a874-f139-e040-e00a18060b1f Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 64.  https://collections.mcny.org/C.aspx?VP3=SearchResult_VPage&VBID=24UP1GTRWKP4&SMLS=1&RW =1202&RH=743  Accessed January 9, 2018.

Figure 65.  Fekner, John, 1980, Broken Promises, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 66.  R. Rolston, Lorraine E. “A New Bronx Tale: Gateway Center and Modern Urban Redevelopment. “Focus on Geography, Summer 2012.

Figure 67.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 68.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Henry Mauer Brick, Bronx, New York.

Figure 69.  Henry Mauer, NYPL Digital Archives.

Figure 70.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, East of Third Avenue and West of Fulton, photography, Bronx, New York.

Figure 71.  https://www.brewersassociation.org/insights/us-brewery-count-tops-3000/ Accessed January 1, 2018.

Figure 72.  https://www.brewersassociation.org/statistics/economic-impact-data/ Accessed August 21, 2017.

Figure 73.  Schwartz, Joel. Community Building on the Bronx Frontier: Morrisania, 1848-1875. Dissertation. Department of History, 1973.

Figure 74.  Haffen Plot. Map, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 75.  (1904) The J & M Haffen Brewing Company, poster, New York.  Accessed December 10, 2017.
https://www.ebay.com/itm/POSTER-J-M-HAFFEN-BREWING-MERMAIDS-OFFERING-BEER-TO-SHIP-VINTAGE-REPRO-FREE-SH-/191983777610?var=&hash=item2cb31ff74a:m:m8kd1sfKMO0j8Wc4VqgdTxA

Figure 76.  The J & M Haffen Brewing Co  Accessed December 28, 2017.
http://www.brighteningglance.org/breweries.html

Figure 77.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Haffen Plot, map, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 78.  Louis F. Haffen Headstone, Photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 79.  Source: Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 12 [Map bounded by E.156th St., St. Anns Ave., E. 149th St., Morris Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections.  Accessed August 20, 2017.   http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/a1e92cd8-5971-23d4-  e040-e00a18061d5c

Figure 80.  Ibid

Figure 81.  Courtesy of: McNamara, John, in Images of America: South Bronx, Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 78.

Figure 82.  Courtesy of: McNamara, John C. in Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx. San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 77.

Figure 83.  Courtesy of: McNamara, John in Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 78.

Figure 84.  Courtesy of: McNamara, John in Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 79.

Figure 85.  Courtesy of: McNamara, John in Twomey, Bill. Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 79.

Figure 86.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Eichler and, Kolb Monuments, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 87.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hop and Barley Detail, Kolb Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 88.   Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Bronx, V. 10, Double Page Plate No. 213 [Map bounded by E. 161st St., Clifton St., Trinity Ave., E. 156th St., Elton Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 20, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9817b01c-6d82-9cb5-e040-e00a180621b9

Figure 89.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 90.  Hupfel and Ehret plots, map, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 91.  Hupfel Plot, map, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 92.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Second Hupfel Plot, map, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 93.  Ibid

Figure 94.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 95.  Bornstein, Jonathan, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 96.  Ibid

Figure 97.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 98.  Ibid

Figure 99.  Ibid

Figure 100.  Bornstein, Jonathan, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 101.  Ibid

Figure 102. Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 103. Bornstein, Jonathan, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 104.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 105.  Bornstein, Jonathan, 2017, Bridge over 160th, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 106.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Street View of Hupfel Ruins, photograph, Bronx, New York.

Figure 107.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, East of Third-Avenue, 168th, photograph, Bronx, New York

Figure 108.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Hops and Barley, Eichler Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery,Bronx, New York.

Figure 109. Courtesy of: McNamara, John in Twomey, Bill.  Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 83.

Figure 110.  Courtesy of: McNamara John in Twomey, Bill.  Images of the South Bronx, San Francisco: Arcadia Publishing, 2002, 83.

Figure 111. Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Eichler Monument with Hops and Barley, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery,   Bronx, New York.

Figure 112.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Ehret Mausoleum, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 113. Anderson, Will.  The Beer Book.  Princeton, N.J.: Pyne Press, 1973, 128.

Figure 114.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Ebling Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 115. Ibid

Figure 116.  David Mayer Vintage Beer Bottle.  Accessed January 10, 2018
http://mikesbottleroom.weebly.com/uploads/1/3/6/4/1364548/9686494_orig.jpg

Figure 117.  Source: (1900) The Atlas of the Borough of The Bronx by Hyde & Company, 1900.

Figure 118.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Zeltner’s Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 119.  Ibid

Figure 120.  Zeltner, Shaefer, and Kunt, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery Map.

Figure 121.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Kuntz Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 122.  Ibid

Figure 123.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2017, Rivinius Monument, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 124.    https://ny.curbed.com/maps/mapping-new-york-citys-breweries-gone-residential  Accessed August 21,2017.

Figure 125.  https://www.brewersassociation.org/?s=bronx  Accessed December 28, 2017.

Figure 126.  Michael Kirby’s article about Allan Kaprow’s art installation “Eat” can be found in the Tulane Drama   Review (Volume 10, Number 2, Winter, 1965).

Figure 127.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2015, Ehret Mausoleum, photograph, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, New York.

Figure 128.  Source: (1900) The Atlas of the Borough of The Bronx by Hyde & Company, 1900.

Figure 129.  Zimmer, Michelle, 2012, Adath Israel, photograph, Grand Concourse, Bronx, New York.

 

Maps
(1873) [West of the Bronx River ] Dept. of Public Parks of N.Y.C., Topographical Map made from surveys.

(1887) [Hunts Pt, Melrose, Morrisania, Mott Haven ] Robinson, E., Atlas of the city of New York, v. 5.

(1891) [Mott Haven, Melrose, Port Morris ] Sanborn Map Company, Atlas 42.59. Vol. 9.

(1892-95) [West of the Bronx River ] New York Topographic Bureau, Bronx (West), N.Y. 1:1,800.

(1888-97) [West of the Bronx River ] Robinson, E., Certified copies of important maps, v. 1

(1900) The Atlas of the Borough of The Bronx by Hyde & Company, 1900.

(1901) [West of the Bronx River ] Hyde, E.B., Atlas of the borough of the Bronx.

(1901) [Hunts Point, Belmont, East Tremont ] Sanborn Map Company, Atlas 52. Vol. 14

(1904) [Melrose, Mott Haven, Hunts Point ] Bromley, G.W., Atlas and owners names, borough of Bronx

 

Online Sites and Online Maps

https://www.archaeology.cityofnewyork.us/collection/map/van-cortlandt-mansion/borough/bronx Accessed December 28, 2017.

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https://www.craftbeer.com/craft-beer-muses/new-york-state-americas-former-hop-capital Accessed January 25, 2018.

https://www.ediblegeography.com/bronx-beer-caves Accessed December 28, 2017.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/katevinton/2015/11/04/how-breweries-like-coors-yuengling-and-anheuser-busch-survived-prohibition/#634fe09dfabd
Accessed December 28, 2017.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/katevinton/2015/11/04/how-breweries-like-coors-yuengling-and-anheuser-busch-survived-prohibition/#2cc9b248fab
Accessed December 28, 2017.

http://www.gothamgazette.com/index.php/environment/2005-the-sewer-system Accessed January 25, 2018.

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Outline and Index Map of the 23rd Ward, City of New York.” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.                 http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e2-4ad5-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 7: [Bounded by St. Ann’s Ave., John St., Eagle Ave., Cedar Place, Prospect Ave., Southern Blvd., E. 147th St., Trinity Ave. and E. 149th St.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.               http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e2-4adc-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 10: [Bounded by E. 170th St., Clinton Ave., Horton St., Prospect Ave., E. 168th St. and Webster Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e2-4adf-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Bronx, V. 10, Double Page Plate No. 224 [Map bounded by Washington Ave., E. 169th St., Boston Rd., Spring Place., E. 166th St.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 1, 2017.           http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9817b01c-6d8d-9cb5-e040-e00a180621b9

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Bronx, V. 10, Double Page Plate No. 213 [Map bounded by E. 161st St., Clifton St., Trinity Ave., E. 156th St., Elton Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 20, 2017.               http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/9817b01c-6d82-9cb5-e040-e00a180621b9

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Map of the Harlem River and Spuyten Duyvil Creek from Ward’s Island to the Hudson River” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 7, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/be5d8920-f161-0130-8650-58d385a7b928

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 23 [Map bounded by E. 161st St., Kelly St., E. 152nd St., St. Ann’s Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 20, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/a1e92cd8-597c-23d4-e040-e00a18061d5c

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Plate 12 [Map bounded by E. 156th St., St. Ann’s Ave., E. 149th St., Morris Ave.]” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 20, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/a1e92cd8-5971-23d4-e040-e00a18061d5c

Lionel Pincus and Princess Firyal Map Division, The New York Public Library. “Double Page Plate No. 21, Part of Section 10, Borough of the Bronx” New York Public Library Digital Collections.    http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/2a039b20-3074-0132-b780-58d385a7bbd0

https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3804n.pm005400/ Accessed January 25, 2018.

Mapping Inequality: Redlining In New Deal America. Accessed January 9, 2018.                 https://dsl.richmond.edu/panorama/redlining/#loc=12/40.8580/-73.8565&opacity=0.8&city=bronx-ny

http://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/data-maps/city-neighborhoods.page Accessed January 25, 2018.

https://ny.curbed.com/maps/mapping-new-york-citys-breweries-gone-residential Accessed August 21, 2017.

http://www.newyorkupstate.com/breweries/2017/02/new_york_state_now_has_more_than_300_breweries_–                _the_most_since_before_prohibit.html Accessed December 28, 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/26/nyregion/26metjournal.html?hp Accessed December 28, 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/19/nyregion/neighborhood-report-spuyten-duyvil-quietly-a-slice-of-bronx-
history-disappears.html
 Accessed December 28, 2017.

https://www.thewoodlawncemetery.org/explore-our-history/
Accessed February 8, 2018.

R. Rolston, Lorraine E. “A New Bronx Tale: Gateway Center and Modern Urban Redevelopment. “Focus on Geography, Summer 2012, 63+Academic OneFile Accessed December 27, 2017.

Rare Book Division, The New York Public Library. “Annual Dinner [held by] Schnorer Club of Morrisania [at] “Schnorer Club, Bronx, NY”. New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed September 7, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47db-6ecd-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/how-some-breweries-survived-prohibition-180962754/  Accessed December 28, 2017.

Stack, Martin. “A Concise History of America’s Brewing Industry”. EH.Net Encyclopedia, edited by Robert Whaples. July 4, 2003. Accessed January 1, 2018.
http://eh.net/encyclopedia/a-concise-history-of-americas-brewing-industry/

The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography Collection, The New York Public Library. “Henry Maurer, 420-422 East 23rd Street, looking southeast, Manhattan.” New York Public Library Digital Collections. Accessed August 21, 2017.
http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47d9-4f75-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99


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